A permanent resident is someone who has been given permanent resident status by immigrating to Canada, but is not a Canadian citizen. Applications for permanent residence generally fall into the following categories: Family Class (spouses, dependent children and parents/grandparents), Economic Classes (Express Entry and Provincial Nominee Programs) and Refugees and Humanitarian and Compassionate applications.
Becoming a Canadian citizen gives you additional rights, benefits and protections that are not available to Permanent Residents, including the right to vote and the right to hold public office. Recent changes to Canada’s Citizenship Act can make processing applications more complex.
An individual may be considered a Convention refugee if they have a well-founded fear of persecution upon returning to their country of citizenship or country of legal permanent residence. There are five forms of persecution recognized by the international community: race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group and political opinion.